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Motor vehicle emissions

Particulate Number Measurement in the Exhaust Emissions Test of Vehicles with Spark Ignition Engines (84.0534)
Motor vehicles with combustion engines (direct injection technology) of the Euro emission stage 6d/6d TEMP and vehicles of future emission stages are usually equipped with particle filters - this applies to petrol as well as diesel vehicles. Checking the full functionality of particulate filters is a task of the Periodic Technical Inspection of vehicles. A new particle number test ensures that particles emitted by the vehicle are sufficiently filtered over the entire life cycle of the vehicle to meet the required emission limits. For particle number measurement (PN measurement) as part of the exhaust emission test for diesel vehicles, a measurement procedure was already developed on behalf of the BASt in 2018, a limit value was proposed and both were validated in 2019 in a monitoring of 500 diesel vehicles. The results of the two studies Particle number measurements as part of the further development of the exhaust emission test have been published. The aim of the present project is to clarify the extent to which the PN measurement procedure developed for Germany for diesel vehicles can also be applied to modern petrol vehicles of the Euro 6 exhaust stage.

Regeneration of particulate filters on petrol and diesel cars (84.0533)
During the operation of vehicles, particulate matter arises from non-exhaust emissions and exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are permanently measured, recorded and analysed during the type-approval procedure. Special situations, such as the regeneration of a particulate filter, are not explicitly tested. So far, there are very few generally available measurements of exhaust emissions from vehicles in regeneration. It is unclear which pollutants are emitted in which quantities. The regeneration frequency of a filter depends on a wide range of influencing factors. These are for example: driving dynamics, engine, size and design of the exhaust aftertreatment elements, traffic situation and environmental conditions. For this reason, it is not possible to determine exactly when the particulate filter regenerates, whether by means of driving times or distances. This can only be determined on the basis of values stored in a vehicle's control unit. In this project, well-founded measurements will be carried out for the first time on a larger scale on different vehicles, with regard to engine and exhaust technology, during the regeneration of the particulate filter. This will provide reliable information on the type and quantity of the substances emitted during regeneration. These can then be used for targeted further investigations and proposals for the post Euro 6/VI legislation. In parallel, all gaseous emissions limited by law as well as ammonia (only for diesel vehicles), nitrous oxide and methane will be recorded and evaluated.

Alternative fuels for road traffic (84.0530)
A short literature study shall be carried out to present the current state of development in the field of alternative fuels, including synthetic fuels - so-called 'e-fuels'. In order to be able to compare the different fuels, the study should cover all relevant criteria relevant in the context of the use/production of potential alternative fuels for road traffic. The focus of the literature search should be on the analysis of the following criteria/aspects, among others: Energy efficiency/ primary energy expenditure for fuel production, manufacturing costs, CO2 and pollutant reduction potential of the alternative, availability, usability of the fuel in the existing vehicle fleet or in conventional combustion engines, compatibility with the existing infrastructure, potential of the fuel as a resource, competition with other important areas and market penetration potential in Germany/European Union. On the basis of the specific criteria, a systematic comparison of the considered fuel alternatives is to be carried out, which will enable a comprehensive comparison of the alternative or regeneratively produced fuels with respect to the wide-ranging criteria.

Pilot project on emission measurements using remote sensing devices (84.0531)
The realistic determination and allocation of vehicle emissions in road traffic is becoming increasingly important for meaningful analyses and targeted measures. In the current European exhaust legislation, a major step in this direction has been taken with the introduction of RDE (Real Driving Emissions) measurements for the type approval of passenger cars. These are carried out within the framework of a defined driving profile defined by various parameters. The aim of this project is to demonstrate the possibilities and limits of the optical measurement method "Remote Sensing Measurement" for recording exhaust emissions in road traffic. It should become apparent where the measurement technology can be used locally on traffic routes, which emitters can be recorded, what the data quality is, what data exchange with other authorities or institutions is necessary in order to compare engine data with emission values and what knowledge can be gained from the measured values. Emissions are measured in moving traffic. In addition to the acceleration measurement of the vehicles and the license plate recognition, at least the following values are measured and recorded: CO, CO2, NO2, NO, HC, particles. All vehicles – including light and heavy commercial vehicles and motorcycles – are to be recorded by the system.

Transfer of the mileage survey to TREMOD (84.0523)
In addition to differentiated information on fuel and energy consumption as well as pollutant emissions for all vehicle categories, detailed and current information on their mileage is also required to describe road-traffic-related emissions using the data and calculation model TREMOD. This project is intended to implement the mileage data obtained from the “2014 mileage survey” in TREMOD so that they may be used to calculate the traffic-related emissions.

Emission Measurements as the Base Data for Determining Emission Factors: Modern Motorcars with a Diesel Engine (Lot 2) (84.0513)
Precise data regarding on-the-road vehicle emissions are essential for predicting future road traffic emissions accurately. This research project seeks to measure exhaust emissions on a variety of motorcars in different driving cycles and compile data sets which can be used in a follow-up project to determine individual emission factors. The measurement data will be presented in such a way that they can be used to extrapolate emission factors using the HBEFA system for various vehicle categories, traffic situations and longitudinal gradients.

Emissions from Motorcycles (5114005)
With the introduction of the Euro 4 (2016) and Euro 5 (2020) emissions standards, Regulation VO(EU) 168/2013 lays down new emission limits for vehicles of category L. In addition to tailpipe emissions during normal vehicle use, evaporative emissions after the termination of engine operation and tank breathing will also be included, because these emissions constitute a large proportion of the HC emissions in this class of vehicle. The setting and measurement of evaporative emissions is based in this case on the SHED test procedure. In addition to the emission limit values, this procedure includes a time plan for applying the EU regulation to the type-approval of motor vehicles (including transitional periods) as well as the driving cycles to be used. This project seeks to examine the growth in the proportion of all controlled pollutants in Regulation VO(EU)168/2013 for vehicles of category L as a proportion of all pollutant emissions from road traffic. In addition to a nuanced inspection of emissions during normal vehicle use, the project will devote particular attention to the proportion of emissions produced by evaporative emissions and tank breathing.